Few agreements and endless negotiations: is the UN climate summit heading towards another failure?

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As in previous editions, the lack of political will of some countries, and the greed of others not to repair climate impacts in less developed ones, will leave the negotiators of the 27th climate summit over the weekend trying to close deals related to combustible fossil fuels, damage and loss, climate adaptation and mitigation.

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The summit, which began on November 6, was due to close this Friday with a final statement. However, the organizers have decided to extend the proceedings for another two days, before lack of agreements.

From the outset, this United Nations meeting in Sharm el Sheikh (Egypt) has seen its negotiating capacity diminish before the absence of Russia from the war in Ukraine, to which are added India and China, countries among the largest emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere and the cause of global warming.

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Even so, and despite the little climate ambition they demonstrated, during the fortnight of meetings they held some chords and others that had been signed at previous Conferences of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (COP) have been strengthened.

Chords

In relation to climate mitigation, more than 200 countries, regions and manufacturers, among other actors, have joined the “Accelerating to Zero (A2Z)” coalition, which is an extension of the declaration on zero-emission vehicles signed at COP26 to eliminate the sale of combustion-engined cars and vans by 2035 in large markets.

Spain and France joined A2Z at this summit, while the other major world producers such as China, the United States, Japan, India, South Korea, Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Thailand have not yet joined.

In any case, in Europe, last October it was agreed between the European Council, Parliament and Commission not to sell new combustion engine vans in the European Union after 2035.

A2Z aims to accelerate decarbonization and reduce carbon emissions, although according to environmental organizations, to reach the Paris Agreement goal of 1.5 degrees of global warming, these efforts would need to be significantly scaled up.

Financing

In relation to the losses and damages between the most polluting countries and other developing countries, the Vice-President of the European Commission, Frans Timmermans, has announced a “final offer” to set up a specific fund to finance this section, but it involves two conditions : which is aimed at the “most vulnerable” countries and brings together a large number of donors.

However, Timmermans stressed to the press that the beneficiaries of this fund should be based on the economic situation of 2022 and not on that of 1992, with a clear allusion to China.

Furthermore, the European proposal indicated that this fund must be accompanied by a “mosaic” made up of new and existing institutions, such as development banks or the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

This proposal is intended to include Small Island Developing States and Least Developed Countries.

This is one of the pitfalls at this summit and in front of which the vulnerable countries – which are the ones that suffer most from the increasingly frequent and intense impacts of climate change – opposed, because, let us remember, it is a historical environmental debt caused by developed countries.

Just Tuvalu, the island state of Oceania, announced this week that it will be the first country to appear virtually in the face of rising sea levels which will cause its disappearance within a few years.

In relation to climate mitigation, i.e. the reduction of emissions, The proposal is to reach 45% in 2030 compared to 2010 and net zero in 2050.

However, regarding the reduction of fossil fuels, the draft presented by the Egyptian presidency of COP27 does not include the request of India and environmental groups to obtain a reduction in the production of these fuels.

On the contrary, according to Oceana, only on the offshore exploitation of oil and gas there are 355 major projects that should be implemented in 48 countries by 2025.

But they are not the only projects, the oil multinationals – present at this COP27 through lobbies – have projects in African and Latin American countries that do not foresee the end of fossil fuels, as scientists recommend to reduce warming.

In addition, countries such as Brazil, with president-elect Lula Inácio da Silva – and in which many have pinned their hope of “saving” the Amazon – have announced that they will strengthen the oil industry in their country and the state-owned company Petrobras .

The president of Colombia, Gustavo Petro, spoke in the opposite direction, declaring his opinion commitment to renewable energydespite criticism from his country’s oil industry.

With these prospects, it is desirable that the negotiators listen to the secretary general of the United Nations, António Guterres, who has called on the parties to COP27 to stop blaming each other and sign an “ambitious and credible” agreement.

It is the critical decade and it is necessary to join the action, to remember different actors.

Source: EFE

B. C

Source: Clarin

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